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By The Numbers

Workplace Survey, Findings

1.Workers are struggling to work effectively. 

When focus is compromised in pursuit of Collaboration, neither works well.

2. Effective workplaces balance focus and collaboration. 

Workplaces designed to enable collaboration without sacrificing employees’ ability to focus are more successful.

3. Choice drives performance and innovation. 

Employers who provide a spectrum of choices for when and where to work are seen as more innovative and have higher-performing employees.


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Business leaders increasingly find themselves in unfamiliar territory marked by high levels of uncertainty and instability, a slowing global economy, and shifting political realities. Therefore, leaders need to master the art of shaping systems, rather than just operating within them. This means not merely extending their current game, which typically focuses on the company, the resources it controls, and its immediate competitors, suppliers, and customers. Instead, it requires a completely new set of priorities and capabilities. 

According to Martin Reeves, Simon Levin, Johann D. Harnoss, and Daichi Ueda, from the Boston Consulting Group, leaders can take these five steps to effectively shape the extended system in which they participate.


1. Observe and understand the broader system. 

First, leaders need to situate their business mentally in the context of a wider system that includes consumers, ecosystem partners, media institutions, and policymakers. This means understanding the key players and their interests and mapping out the important relationships among them. Often, opportunities for and threats to the business become visible only by considering the broader system beyond traditional industry boundaries.

The music industry in the 2000s is a classic case of what happens when business leaders fail to see the bigger ecosystem picture. Record labels faced with new digital competitors were on a downward spiral and unable to muster the systemic response to break out of it. Eventually, it took an industry outsider, Apple Inc. founder Steve Jobs, to lead (nearly) all major music labels onto one platform, and with it open a viable path to new digital revenues.

2. Master the art of intervening in the system. 

Next, leaders need to learn how to intervene effectively in a complex adaptive system. A common managerial mistake is to limit oneself to direct leverage points. Instead, seemingly softer indirect points can often provide more leverage in complex systems. One example: the “Intel Inside” campaign. Before Intel, chip manufacturers marketed to their direct users — design engineers at computer manufacturers — but as the market matured, chips were in danger of becoming commoditized. By finding an indirect but more powerful leverage point — the end consumer — Intel was able to change the role that chip manufacturers play in the IT value chain and assume a leadership role in the industry. In that process, Intel grew its value by more than 40 times.

3. Orchestrate collaboration in the system. 

Leading in a system requires striking a balance between the often-conflicting needs of companies and the broader system that they constitute. To do so, leaders must foster mutualism and trust among the companies. In practice, this requires not just modeling the right behaviors by creating value for the overall system but also actively surfacing and resolving tension within the system. Active conflicts, such as between nongovernmental organizations and large companies serving similar constituencies, can lead to productive information exchange and activity; these interactions, while stressful, typically help both sides improve and sharpen their value proposition, whereas unsurfaced tension increases the risk of deeper disruptions down the road. Healthy systems require both collaboration and small, manageable conflicts.

4. Foresee and manage system wide risks. 

Because of the increasing interconnectedness and interdependence of companies, many corporate risks present themselves to the entire system rather than to individual companies. To manage system wide risks, leaders must be able to detect potential threats to the system’s health and have the courage to pre-emptively change practices to avert them. This means that they need to play the roles of antennae that sense changing political, social, and technological signals; articulate the risks these developments bring; and also act as disruptors to prod other stakeholders in the system to adopt new behaviors, even when the direct benefits to their own companies are not clear or immediate.

Take the suffering U.S. textbook industry. Some of its system wide woes come from technological substitution, but a more fundamental challenge is that the entire sector has been impervious to persistent warning signals about its lack of openness and anachronistic pricing practices. As a result, the industry now faces a host of competition and substitutions, ranging from open-access journals to massive open online courses.

5. Lead with a new mindset. 

Leaders cannot rely only on formal authority or a chain of command when working on their system. Instead, they need to leverage more informal ways of exercising leadership that can transcend organizational boundaries. Some leaders rely on superior visionary abilities to exercise thought leadership in an industry; others leverage their ability to convene and build trustful relationships. Ultimately, these actions transform leadership from a position of authority into an activity that can create broader influence. This transformation requires, at its root, a mindset shift from thinking in reductionist models of company performance toward more holistic models of system performance. Those who manage this shift are bound to create an advantage for their company as well as their wider ecosystem.